Anti-anxiety: diazepam, Valium, Stesolid
Generic Name: diazepam
Anxiolytic - Sedative - Muscle Relaxant
Brand Name(s): Valium, Stesolid
Common Use: Antianxiety agent
Diazepam is a benzodiazepine with CNS depressant properties and a somewhat
flatter dose-response slope than the sedative-hypnotic drugs. Diazepam also
possesses dependence liability and may produce withdrawal symptoms, but has
a wide margin of safety against poisoning.
The short-term symptomatic management of mild to moderate degrees of anxiety
in conditions dominated by tension, excitation, agitation, fear or aggressiveness,
such as may occur in psychoneurosis, anxiety reactions due to stress conditions
and anxiety states with somatic expression. In acute alcoholic withdrawal, diazepam
may be useful in the symptomatic relief of acute agitation, tremor and impending
acute delirium tremens.As an adjunct for the relief of skeletal muscle spasm
due to reflex spasm to local pathology, such as inflammation of the muscle and
joints or secondary to trauma; spasticity caused by upper motor neuron disorders,
such as cerebral palsy and paraplegia; athetosis and the rare stiff man syndrome.
Myasthenia gravis, known hypersensitivity to benzodiazepines. Not recommended
for children under 6 months of age.
The most common adverse effects reported are drowsiness and ataxia. Other reactions
noted less frequently are fatigue, dizziness, nausea, blurred vision, diplopia,
vertigo, headache, slurred speech, tremors, hypoactivity, dysarthria, euphoria,
impairment of memory, confusion, depression, incontinence or urinary retention,
constipation, skin rash, generalized exfoliative dermatitis, hypotension, changes
The more serious adverse reactions occasionally reported are leukopenia, jaundice,
hypersensitivity and paradoxical reactions.
Paradoxical reactions such as hyperexcited states, anxiety, excitement,
hallucinations, increased muscle spasticity, insomnia, rage, as
well as sleep disturbances and stimulation, have been reported;
should these occur, the drug should be discontinued.
Drowsiness, oversedation and ataxia. When the effects of drug overdosage begin
to wear off, the patient exhibits some jitteriness and overstimulation. The
cardinal manifestations of overdosage are drowsiness and confusion, reduced
reflexes and coma. There are minimum effects on respiration, pulse and blood
pressure unless the overdosage is extreme. Gastric lavage may be beneficial
if performed soon after oral ingestion of diazepam.
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